Despite this negative tendency of fertilizer industries in Europe, CIEC succeeded to organize the 10th World Congress in 1990, in Nicosia, with a co-operant support given by Agricultural Research Institute of the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Cyprus. President of the Congress was Dr. C. S. Serghiu and Secretary General Dr. I. Papadopouluos. About 350 delegates from 51 countries attended, presenting 125 papers as oral or poster contributions, focused on the Congress theme "Efficient fertilization, manuring and irrigation for improving yield, food quality and renewable resources". The Congress was once again a memorable success.
A very unfavorable period followed for CIEC, due to the sudden death of CIEC's long standing President -‐ Prof. Dr. Dj Jelenic (1991), replaced by Prof. E. Welte as President interim, the outbreak of the civil war in Yugoslavia (1992) and the confiscation of the general Secretariat's bank accounts by the official government of former Yugoslavia in Belgrade.
The organization has entered under more favorable auspices at the 19th General Assembly, held in Vienna, on June 1996, where the author of this presentation dedicated to 80 years CIEC history, was elected as the new CIEC President. Prof. E. Welte was elected as Honorary President and 28 new scientists and professional staff, as members of the CIEC Presidium.
CIEC has launched its new objectives, mainly the achievement of a well-‐balanced plant nutrition and soil fertility improvement, under the new concept of sustainable development. In view of the challenge caused by the growing world demand for more food, required by an increasing population and by the hunger and malnutrition in some developing countries, "Fertilizer Science" becomes again a fundamental field to work out suitable and adequate measure for both optimum plant nutrition and a compensation of nutrient mining from the soil.
Such a challenge required a new protocol of CIEC, part of which has been built not only on a staff renewal, but also on infrastructural changes, as those created at the 19th General Assembly in Vienna.
Despite a long depression period (1990‐1996), CIEC organized several international meetings, as the 7th Symposium on "Agroforestry and Land Use Change in Industrialized Nations", Berlin, 1994 and the 8th Symposium “Fertilizers and Environment”, Salamanca, Spain, 1995, with about 200 participants from 28 countries.
The 9th Symposium "Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Management, Bridge between Science, Industry and Practice", held in Kusadasi, Turkey, also in 1995, put together attendants from 12 countries that were mainly concerned on the special problems of the Near East regions.
Due to the scientific responsibility of a small but highly-‐motivated international scientists, operating on a voluntary base, a tremendous work load involved in the organization of all these symposia and conferences and in the publishing of their corresponding proceedings was successfully accomplished, even in that depression period. Once again the persevering endeavour of Prof. E. Welte has to be stressed and appreciated.
After the election of the new CIEC President and the new CIEC Presidium members, a number of CIEC World Fertilizer Congresses and Symposia were successfuly organized.
On December 1996, in Braunschweig, Germany, the 10th Symposium was jointly organized by CIEC and the Institute of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science of the German Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL), with Prof. Ewald Schnug, Director of the Institute and Deputy CIEC Vice President, together with active participation of Prof. Silvia Haneklaus, having as subject "Recycling of plant nutrients from industrial processes".